A quick look at the side of a car gives you an idea as to
its potential for towing. If it has a relatively long wheelbase
and the overhang at the back is short (distance between the centre
of the rear wheels to the towball) that's a good start . We have
listed some important calculations that you should consider in
order to set up both vehicles for better towing.
The weight of the towing vehicle as defined by the vehicle manufacturer
(we suggest that you consult your vehicle's manual for this).
|Actual Laden Weight
The total weight of the caravan/trailer and its contents when being towed.
|Caravan or Trailer /Towing Vehicle Weight
The actual laden weight of the caravan expressed as a percentage of the
kerb weight of the towing vehicle, i.e: actual laden weight of caravan,
divided by kerb weight of towing vehicle, multiplied by 100.
|Car to Caravan weight ratio
It is recommended that you do not exceed an 85% caravan to
car weight ratio. This means that your caravan, fully loaded,
should not be more than 85% of your cars kerb-weight (or max
tow weight if this is lower). If you are an experienced
caravanner's you can go up to 100% weight ration but this is not
recommended. If the caravan is more than the kerb-weight
of the car and you are stopped by the Police you could be prosecuted.
||New technology in vehicle manufacture has led to new
car cars being much lighter than older cars. In addition,
modern cars only have a few points strong enough to attach
a tow-bar. It is always that the proper towbar for the
car is fitted otherwise it may fail with catastrophic results.
||The European Union have introduced new laws, EC Directive
94/20/EC, that requires cars (or other light passenger
vehicles, registered after 1 st August 1998 are fitted
with a 'type approved' tow-bar.
|Type approval summary
- Applies to 'S' registered cars onwards (i.e. registered
- Type approved tow-bars have been subjected to a test
of 2,000,000 push pull fatigue test
- Type approved tow-bars must fit to all the vehicles mounting
- Fitting a type approved tow-bar to new cars will not
invalidate the vehicles warranty
- If you do not fit a type approved tow-bar to a car registered
after 1.8.1998 could result in being prosecuted under the
Road Traffic Act
- If you fit a non type approved tow-bar to a car registered
after 1.8.1998 and you are involved in an accident you
may find your insurance is invalid
- All tow-bars must carry a 'type approved' label containing
the following information:
- Maximum nose-weight
- Approval number
- Country where the towbar was tested e.g. UK is e11
Exemptions: The new law only applies to cars it
does not apply to commercial vehicles.
Stabilisers are an effective method of increasing
safety when towing a caravan. They are designed to reduce
vertical (pitching) and horizontal (snaking) instability.
This is often caused when an outfit is being overtaken or
overtaking. The instability is caused by the air being forced
between the two vehicles. Other caused of instability are:
- Driving too fast
- Side winds
- Potholes or un-even road surfaces
|What types are there?
|There are basically two types of stabiliser:
||Blade stabilisers fit to the towing bracket and the caravan
and use a tensioned blade with two dampers to reduce movement
from side to site and up and down.
||Tow ball devices often fit to the caravan hitch point
and involve replacing the tow-ball on the car
From 1 January 1997, new drivers may drive a vehicle up to 3.5 tonnes
gross vehicle weight (GVW) with a 750kgs GVW trailer. Towing under
a provisional licence is NOT acceptable. If in doubt, contact the DVLA
on 01792 772151.
Most vehicle insurance policies will cover you for third party liability
when towing, but we advise you to check your own policy carefully. If
you are unsure about cover when towing then contact your insurance
company for clarification.
The maximum speed that a car towing a trailer etc. is 60mph on UK motorways
and dual carriageways and 50mph other roads (providing, of course,
there is no lower speed limit is in force at the time). Vehicles
are not allowed to use the right-hand (overtaking) lane of a three lane
carriageway whilst towing.
Size of trailer
Assuming that an ordinary car (not a goods vehicle) is the tow vehicle,
then the overall length of the trailer, caravan etc. must not exceed
7m, excluding A-frame and hitch. The maximum width of the trailer should
not exceed 2.3 m.
|Lights and reflectors
All trailers on the road during darkness must have the following;
- Two red side lights at the rear
- Brake lights
- Direction indicators
- Number plate light
- At least one rear fog light (if the trailer is
more than 1.3m wide)
- Two red triangular reflectors
|All lights must be in proper working order,
and correctly fitted to your car's electrics - see below
for wiring standards on the 12 'n' and 's' socket.
Tyres and number plates
Wheels and tyres must be capable of carrying the maximum laden weight
of the caravan at the maximum speed limit (this varies throughout
Europe ). Trailers, caravans etc. must be fitted with an approved
style number plate.
It is vital that the towing vehicle's rear suspension is not deflected
excessively by nose weight on the towball. If it is excessive, steering,
stability and headlight alignment will be affected.
This is not currently required for trailers and caravans. However, an
un-roadworthy trailer may invalidate your insurance and may mean you
are committing an offence under the Road Traffic Act.
It is illegal to allow passengers to travel inside the trailer, caravan
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